July 15, 2015      
Northern States Conservation CenterNorthern States
Conservation Center

The Collections Caretaker e-Newsletter

New Technologies: Magnets   

In This Issue
Asset Security
Regional Workshops
Conferences and Meetings
Submissions and Comments
Super Panel Display
An Introduction to Magnetic Mounting Systems
August Courses
September Courses

Announcing Early Bird Discounts for Full Length Courses


Beginning June 22, 2015 an Early Bird Discount will be available for anyone who signs up for a full length course from museumclasses.org 30 days prior to the start of that course.  


Sign up for a full length course up to 30 days prior to its start and pay only $400.00!


For our course list or to sign up: http://www.collectioncare.org/course-list  


To take advantage of this discount, you must enter coupon code EARLYBIRD at checkout at collectioncare.org 


The Early Bird Discount deadline for September 2015 courses is August 3, 2015.

Upcoming Classes

Asset Security

Bill Anderson, Art Guard


I've seen firsthand a lack of consensus between security and conservation over the protection of assets from theft or tampering, especially in larger institutions. It is so dramatic in some cases that security personnel refuse to have conservators present in a discussion of security measures until they have mounted a compelling argument. This balkanization is somewhat understandable since the mandate to aggressively protect art and objects so often asks for or imposes compromises in their handling and treatment. And just as understandable is the resistance to compromise on the part of curators and conservators when preservation of art and cultural objects is involved. In smaller institutions this quagmire is often a burden borne by the same person.


The desire to offer an intimacy with the art or object on the part of those tasked with creating exhibitions is reinforced by increasingly more sophisticated audiences who seek authenticity in setting, placement, and presentation. This is the very thing that keeps security personnel awake at night and in constant pursuit of a workable balance.


Nighttime perimeter or intrusion security, at one time the only means of 24-hour supervision, is still basically a door/window sensor system with motion detection thrown in for good measure. But all must be turned off during operating hours to allow for daily activity in any institution, large or small, frequently leaving guards as the only thing between vulnerable objects and the front door.


Object specific security emerged in the last several years as a solution that bolstered the security side of the equation. It has solved the dilemma of alarming individual objects in the absence of any other means of supervision, including an inattentive guard or someone monitoring CCTV monitors. And it has arrived at an interesting crossroads in art and asset protection where a confluence of factors occurred. While art security consultants would always like to see layered security approaches to whatever extent funding allows, technologies have appeared recently that allow greater specificity, and with that insurers see a mandate to minimize their risk. So protection has taken a turn, but the parties within the institution are not always in agreement, particularly with respect to compromising the fabric of an artifact.


The standard in object specific protection is a motion or vibration sensor, but its application to a work is problematic in several ways. The means of attachment can be a challenge since its size, generally that of a large book of matches, has to involve a large surface area for the application of adhesives. A limited solution has been to place the sensor in a plastic bag and affix the bag to the work, sometimes pinning it to a wooden frame. Otherwise the sensor must be adhered to the surface of the work, which brings into question not only the adhesive, but the attachment of batteries (which can conceivably leak) to the work. Another factor is cost of the system, most often RFID, which both security and conservation can object too.


Art Guard introduced a sensor system this year that offers a solution for any size institution, but is particularly appealing to smaller facilities that lack the ability to install layers of protection. The MAP, which stands for Magnetic Asset Protection, sensor detects the movement of a rare-earth magnet, often as tiny as a drop of water. The sensor itself is generally the size of a standard motion sensor. What makes the MAP system primarily so appealing to conservation is the fact that what touches the work is not the sensor but the magnet. Whereas the sensor is attached discreetly to (or in) the wall behind a hanging piece and under the supporting surface of a seated object, the magnet is what is affixed to the object, either inside or underneath, and easily hidden from view. The MAP sensor then detects the magnet's movement and triggers an alert to a control panel and produces a customized response, from a local alarm to a cell phone text to notification to an offsite monitoring service. Rare earth, or Neodymium, magnets are basically inert. Normally nickel coated, they are also available with an epoxy covering. A second advantage is that the magnets are available in all shapes and sizes, so it is unlikely that a magnet is not available to satisfy any configuration problem. Thirdly, because of the size of the magnets, almost anything can be protected, from something as large as a painting to something as small as an individual piece of jewelry. Attachment of the tiny magnet becomes less of an issue regardless of the type of artifact. Museum wax is the most common means of attachment, but a variety of pH neutral tapes are available to address the safety of the object. The flexibility of the magnets can extend protection to objects on an individual basis where it was previously inconceivable. For instance, a disk-shaped magnet with a hole can be attached to a costume or piece of fabric with a single cotton thread. A hanging tapestry presents an opportunity to employ magnetism for attachment by placing two flat magnets in opposition to each other on either side of the fabric. Rag board can even be placed between the fabric and the magnet without diminishing the effect. In many cases, because the MAP sensor can also detect the naturally occurring magnetism in ferrous metal, a magnet may not even be needed. The sensor is simply paired with the object.


Another advantage of the MAP sensor is its ability to sense several magnets simultaneously, so, for instance, a grouping of small objects, such as figurines or ornaments, can be protected by a single sensor placed underneath a table, desk or plinth. This makes an already affordable system more appealing.


As anyone in asset security will acknowledge, everything is vulnerable to theft. But hopefully technologies like MAP will continue to offer solutions that bridge the gap between the fear of loss and the devotion to giving the viewer an authentic experience.


To learn more about the MAP (Magnetic Asset Protection) system visit the Art Guard website at http://www.artguard.net/products/art-guard-map/  

Museum Materials sample booklet 

Ordering archival supplies can be difficult and confusing. This booklet provides sample materials of the most common supplies currently offered and discusses how they are used in museums. Organized by function, the booklet covers rigid materials, padding materials, ties and attachments, barrier materials and "bad" materials.

Collections Labeling Kit 

Based on work by the AIC/AAM Joint Committee on Numbering, this kit provides three half ounce brush top bottles of different clear lacquers, two bottles of solvents, and bottles of black and white acrylic inks. Included are three different ink applicators: a fine brush, a quill pen and an empty COPIC marker. Three different pencils, two that are water soluble, samples of different tags and ties, and gloves also are included. A small booklet provides information on how to use each of the items in the kit.

Regional Workshops

Where you can find some of our instructors in 2015:

Stevan P. Layne


Association of Midwest Museums  

  • CIPM Regional Security Management Certification Class, Cincinnati, OH, July 18, 2015


CIPS Regional Security Officer Certification Classes 

  • Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington, DC, September 17 and 18, 2015

Western Museums Association  

  • Disaster Preparedness for Cultural Institutions, San Jose, CA, October 24, 2015  

Gawain Weaver


The Care and Identification of Photographs

Photograph Conservation Workshop for Book and Paper Conservators

Conferences and Meetings


Association of Midwest Museums Conference

Cincinnati, OH

July 19-22, 2015


Society of American Archivists

Cleveland, OH

August 16-22, 2015.


American Association for State and Local History

Louisville, KY
September 16-19, 2015


Mountain-Plains Museums Association

Wichita, KS

September 27 - October 1, 2015


Southeastern Museums Conference

Jacksonville, FL

October 12 - 14, 2015


Western Museums Association

San Jose, CA

October 24-27, 2015


International Foundation for Cultural Property Protection

Hosted by the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville AR and the Philbrook Museum of Art, Tulsa, OK   

October 27-31, 2015


New England Museum Association

Portland, ME

November 4-6, 2015


NAI National Workshop

Virginia Beach, VA
November 10-14, 2015 

Submissions and Comments


How to submit an article or upcoming workshops for inclusion in the Newsletter:  

If you would like to submit an article, notice of an organizational meeting or upcoming workshop for an upcoming Collections Caretaker Newsletter, send your submission to peggy@collectioncare.org.  


We are always looking for contributions to this newsletter. Submission deadline is the 10th of each month. 


Have a comment or suggestion?   


Send it to peggy@collectioncare.org

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Welcome to the Collections Caretaker e-Newsletter from Northern States Conservation Center. The newsletter is designed to bring you timely and helpful content that is pertinent to situations we all encounter in our museum and archives work. Feel free to let us know what topics you would like to see featured in Collections Caretaker or even contribute an article.

Super Panel Display

By Michael Dunphy


For several years, we discussed the use of magnets with conservators, and how they might be used for preparation, support and presentation. In 2011, we had more in-depth discussions with the Conservation and Exhibition departments at Yale University regarding their desire for rigid support panels with multiple applications. They needed archival display panels that could be used with both pins and magnets; one fixture that could accommodate a variety of changing objects, exhibition themes, and curatorial approaches.


We realized that versatile display and support panels could be valuable, as they wouldn't need to be replaced, or even installed/un-installed as often. SmallCorp already offered linen-wrapped archival display panels with ethafoam (to accept pins), and we had been experimenting with rare earth magnets for several years, integrating them with the design of our exhibit cases and LED spotlights, among other things. We worked through several rounds of prototypes with the team at Yale, which helped to fine-tune the design and materials. As a part of the 2012 Swartwout and Street Halls renovation and expansion project, we installed a number of panels at the Yale University Art Gallery. Variations of the panels have been used in several applications since, and it was introduced to our customers as the Super Panel this year.


Super Panels can be installed as a stand-alone wall display, behind a sneeze/dust guard, inside a frame, as a part of an exhibit case, or even as a storage medium. Because they are completely archival, you can feel comfortable using them in a sealed environment.


The panel is a layered sheet of archival materials. The base structure is 4mm dibond sheet (polyethylene core between 2 layers of aluminum), which provides rigidity and accepts cleats for installation. A layer of 9# ethafoam is dense enough to support objects, yet porous enough to accept pins. The ethafoam is covered with a sheet of perforated steel, powdercoated to protect against rust. The solid portions of the sheet accept magnets, which can be used to support objects, textiles, etc. The open portions allow for pinning. We cover the steel with a layer of polycarbonate film -thin enough to pin through, yet thick enough to keep the holes in the steel sheet from telegraphing through the display fabric. We wrap the entire panel in archival linen or your choice of fabric (easily replaced or covered for future exhibitions). We laminate the layers using archival adhesives, and add cleats for installation as required.


There are a few disclaimers, as always. Some conservators don't think magnets are right for every application. And some don't like pins. We don't pretend to know what's best for your objects. We do aim to keep things simple, and we hope a versatile archival exhibit/support panel helps with that. The second concern is weight - given all the layers, these panels weigh about 2.75 pounds per square foot, and that should be considered in terms of use, handling and installation.


Mike Dunphy is the Project Manager and Sales and Marketing Coordinator for SmallCorp.  SmallCorp is a family-owned company, formed in 1972 in southern Maine. We make finished corner picture frames, archival exhibit cases, and many, many products for conservation and exhibition. Since 1987, we've been based in Greenfield, MA, and since 2008 we've been solar-powered. For more information visit our website at: http://www.smallcorp.com/

An Introduction to Magnetic Mounting Systems

By Gwen Spicer


At Spicer Art Conservation, we are passionate about magnets and the amazing possibilities of their use in art conservation. Their use is especially beneficial where standard stitching techniques are not possible. However using magnets is not "magic," there is actually science behind how a magnetic system functions, incorporating three key factors that must be considered:

The balancing of these three parts is what determines a successful system. Once these three key factors are understood individually, as well as how they work in combination with each other, any system can be developed for a specific artifact. No one method appears to be prescribed. Instead each component is adjusted for any particular situation. This is further complicated by the wide variety of needs and requirements of each artifact. Hence, it is only by understanding the parts that make up a system, and their interactions, that a system can be created for a specific task. The developed system needs to be strong enough to support the artifact while not being so strong as to create damage. Each variable can be slightly altered to reach the desired effect. Each component is described below along with its known alternatives. The solutions provided here are to be adapted to fit the needs of the artifacts at hand.


Most conservators use the rare earth magnet Neodymium due to its small size to high strength ratio. The use of rare earth magnets is still in its infancy, but this will change as the knowledge of how to create a magnetic system is better understood by the community. Currently no one method has been created to support or mount all artifacts. In many ways a "one size fits all" solution is too much to ask.


The often overlooked component of the system is the ferromagnetic material (aka, what the magnet will attach to). It is the material that the magnet makes magnetic in its presence, i.e. "a soft magnet" or like a magnetized chain of paper clips. The magnet's performance relies directly on the ferromagnetic material because it will not be optimized if the ferromagnetic metal is not magnetically saturated. Therefore, if a too thin steel sheet or metal foil is used, there will be a diminished pull force and the magnet will subsequently behave as if it were of lower strength. The unfortunate part of this is steel is heavy and requires specialized machinery to cut or drill, which is not often found in most conservation labs or small museums.  


The use of magnets occurs either as point fasteners or to provide continuous large area pressure. Conservators have used both methods successfully.


The most common local point fastener uses individually placed magnets. The selection of a specific magnet depends solely on the pull force and interaction of the magnet with the ferromagnetic metal; with no connection to a nearby magnet. The conservator can select a size and grade of magnet for ease of handling; adjust the gap layers between, and design the magnet to blend with the artifact. Magnets can then be added or subtracted based on what is deemed necessary for support. Typically, the artifact is large enough that the magnets used will not be placed close enough to any other neighboring magnets; so the polar direction of the individual magnets is not of concern.


A drawback to the point fastener is the creation of local stress point in an artifact. For artifacts that have drape, introducing small stresses within the structure can lead to new weaknesses, but for rigid artifacts this approach works quite well. When considering the attachment of a single object to a mount for display, ensure that the pull force is sufficient to support the weight of the object.


Magnets used in continuous large area pressure supports achieve the necessary pressure. This is often done by using magnets with ancillary materials; magnets embedded within stiff materials, an attached webbing sleeve, or some combination of these.


Questions that have arisen are:

1. How do you secure a magnet to a mount?

Using glue is a challenge as that it needs to be stronger than the pull force of the magnet that is being secured. This is even the case when a resin like Acryloid B-48N that is more attracted to metals is used. But depending on your substrate, strong adhesives like superglue or UV cured adhesive is best.


Actually fastening the magnet to a mount can be done. Some magnets come with counter-sunk holes for a flat head screw. This method is used by SmallCorp Inc for their Magnetic Slat. Such magnets are secured to an aluminum "L"-shaped strip that actually holds the weight of the artifact, while the strong magnets ensure the hold of the slat to the ferromagnetic material.


The simplest, and perhaps strongest, hold could be the direct connection of a magnet to a ferromagnetic material (i.e. with no gap material in between). This is simply because a magnet attached directly to a ferromagnetic material is more strongly attracted than a magnet and ferromagnetic material with gap material between. A mount where a magnet is placed inside of a metallic cup uses this behavior to an extreme.


Whatever method you use, make sure that NO HOT MELT GLUE is ever applied to the magnet! Rare earth magnets will lose their magnetism when exposed to extreme heat. (e.g. the maximum recommended temperature for a Neodymium magnet is about 500 degrees F.) See link to K and J Magneticshttps://www.kjmagnetics.com/blog.asp?p=temperature-and-neodymium-magnets 


2. Where should a magnet be placed, on top, inside or behind the artifact?

Part of this discussion is an understanding of care and handling of rare earth magnets for their optimal and continual performance. Areas of concern are mechanical shock, heat, moisture, and a demagnetized field. Therefore, systems with a layer of padding material have the advantage of limiting damage to the magnet from the shock of suddenly snapping together, as might occur accidentally during handling when two magnets are drawn together quickly by their strong magnetic force toward each other.


How the practitioner handles the magnet is important. This also is the case with their storage. A few rules:

  • Separate the rare earth magnets from all other types of permanent magnets.
  • Provide cushioning between the magnets and prevent any shock.
  • Keep away from all heat sources.

Rare earth magnets should be protected. A successful method is to embed the magnet on the mount or within materials. Keeping the magnet surrounded by materials aids in their longevity, preventing demagnetization from both shock and heat. These embedded magnets or ferromagnetic materials can be placed on top or within an artifact as well as used as a point fastener or as continuous pressure.


Embedding magnets into a stiff material like mat, or corrugated board is an obvious approach. At the Asian Art Museum, they have mastered including camouflaged magnets within an outer border that supports the artifact while on display http://www.asianart.org/collections/magnet-mounts <Holbrow & Taira 2011>. They have created a modular system where blockshaped magnets are embedded into strips of mat board and become the finishing outer perimeter of the display mount by being placed over the outer edge of the artifact.


3. Should magnets be secured to the mount rather than incorporated with the artifact?

Yes. Probably the most practical reason is that the mount can be reused, and having the magnet positioned in place could potentially be useful. Whereas, if installed in the artifact's internal structure the magnet might remain there, even after the artifact is returned to storage. The cost of rare earth magnets is ever increasing and the added expense of purchasing more and more magnets is not necessary. More importantly, the long-term effects are unknown; therefore magnets kept within artifacts might be ill advised. Also, keeping an "active device" such as a magnet inside the artifact may cause inadvertent harm. Magnets are always "on", and we at SAC often speak of the "one-mindedness" of magnets and how they will jump to a receiving metal as quickly as possible. If you did not know that an artifact had a magnet inside of it you could place it on, or near, something you actually do not want it to magnetically attach to.


Developing a Language:

As we use magnets in treatments and for mounting artifacts, an important need has become evident: the idea of using a universal standard language to discuss magnetic mounts or treatments so that they can be understood and replicated by others. At SAC we describe our mounts both with cross-section drawings and in written form using what we call the "Spicer" method.


Each bracket was stitched with buttonhole thread and then covered with foiled paper tape (photo below). The edges of the brackets were outlined with Volara framing tape in order to cushion the hard edges of the steel bracket. This was to be the side that faced the mount. The visible side of either glove was carefully padded out with layers of 1/4" Volara foam. For our glove mount we used block shaped, 1/2"x3/8"x1/8", N42 Neodymium rare earth magnets secured to the mount.


As a means to begin to clearly illustrate the above system and its components, the system needs to be accurately described. How do we write the three parts of a system? Below is a suggestion.


The magnetic mount description appears in [brackets] with the bottom most layer listed first. The artifact is listed in italics. Finally, the internal structure follows within the braces (aka squiggly brackets). Within these various brackets are other symbols to indicate specific items used and the order in which they appear:

  • An asterisk indicates the position of the magnet. The grade, shape, and size of the magnet is in parentheses and follows the asterisk: *(grade, shape, size)
  • The ferromagnetic material is underlined, it's gauge and/or thickness follows in parentheses.
  • The gap layers are in bold.

The description would look like this:

[Plexiglas, *(N42, block--1/2"x3/8"x1/8" glued with B--48N), foil paper tape, Volara tape, show cover fabric], artifact (thin calf leather), {foil paper tape, steel bracket (1/16" thickness), stitched to Nomex, Volara padding}


The "Spicer" word diagram of mount layers is described succinctly so that another conservator or preparator can recreate this magnetic mount. The objective is for it to be understandable and therefore reproducible or augmented for use in a similar situation.


Gwen Spicer is a fellow of AIC and as been in private practice for over 20 years. Spicer Art Conservation specializes in textile conservation, object conservation, and the conservation of works on paper. Gwen uses magnets for innovative treatments and mounting of artifacts. To contact her, please email her at gwen@spicerart.com or visit her website http://spicerart.com/ where you will find additional information about magnets and Spicer Art Conservation.

August Courses


MS 204: Materials for Storage and Display

August 3 to 28, 2015

Instructor: Helen Alten


One of the great benefits of the 21st century is the abundance of materials for storing and displaying collections. Materials for Storage and Display covers this vast array in detail. Lectures and handouts separate materials by properties: rigid, padding, barrier and attachments. Slide shows illustrate the use of each. The course emphasizes acid-free materials and how to retrofit less appropriate materials. Materials for Storage and Display keeps current with the latest materials available for preservation. Using material testing as a decision making tool is covered. Participants receive notebooks with samples of all of the materials discussed.


MS 219: Opening and Closing A Seasonal Museum 

August 3 to 28, 2015

Instructor: Diana Komejan


The seasonal closure of a museum presents unique challenges and opportunities for collection preservation. This is an introductory-level conservation course exploring simple collection preservation methods for seasonal museums. The target Audience for the course is curators and other museum personnel, volunteers, site managers, maintenance personnel. No prior conservation training necessary. Participants will learn about the challenges and opportunities associated with caring for collections in seasonal facilities. They will learn about the risks to collections and how to mitigate them through closing and re-opening procedures, as well as throughout the winter season.


MS 233: Matting and Framing

August 3 to 28, 2015

Instructor Tom Bennett


Matting and Framing teaches the materials and techniques of conservation-quality framing. For display, matting and framing provides both protective and aesthetic contributions to art on paper. Students will learn about different types of enclosures, different mat styles and cutting methods, the pros and cons of different backing boards and glazing, and different methods of attaching items to a mat, some of which do not involve adhering hinges to art on paper. Lectures, illustrations, product resources, and additional informational references will be provided.


MS 236: Education in Museums

August 3 to 28, 2015

Instructor: Karin Hostetter


The world of museum education is as varied as the imagination. From school field trips to online blogs, from 2-year-olds to senior citizens, and from formal programs to volunteering, it is all part of the educational delivery system of a museum. In Education in Museums, survey the education programs offered at your site. Determine what exhibits and collections need better representation through education. Develop a long term plan of education program development for your site that you can use to improve services to your community.


MS 244: Traveling Exhibits

August 3 to 28, 2015

Instructor: Lin Nelson-Mayson


Sharing an exciting exhibition with other museums expands your museum's reach and impact. When and how do you plan for this undertaking? How do you manage the exhibition once it has left your facility? How do you ensure a successful exhibition at each venue? Your questions - the more the better - facilitate successful exhibition development and touring. Traveling exhibits, though, are a two-way street. Sometimes you are the lender, sometimes you are the borrower. How do you find and manage interesting exhibits created by other institutions in order to expand your museum's offerings? In this online course, learn how to find interesting exhibits developed by other museums and plan for your exhibition from idea to on the road - and beyond!

September Courses


MS 010: Condition Assessments

September 14 to 18, 2015

Instructor: Helen Alten


Whenever an object leaves or enters your museum, it should have a dated condition report completed. A condition report is so much more than "good" or "poor." Learn about different types of condition reports, what is essential and what is optional information in each, the function of a condition report, and how to use an online condition assessment tool.


MS 203: Storage Techniques

September 7 to October 2, 2015

Instructor:  Helen Alten


Is your collection stacked, packed and stressed? Museum Storage Techniques has the solution. The course builds on its sister course, Museum Facilities and Furniture, which looks at the bigger storage environment.. The Museum Storage Techniques course emphasizes the needs of individual objects and collection groupings. Guidelines for specific materials are provided. Participants learn about storage materials and mounts and the most effective use of trays, drawers, shelves and cabinets.


MS 217: Museum Cleaning Basics

September 7 to October 16, 2015

Instructor: Helen Alten


Cobwebs in the gallery, dust on the dinosaur skeleton, mice in storage - a dirty museum results in poor visitor experience and poor collections preservation. In a museum, cleanliness really is next to godliness. Museum Cleaning Basics explores everything you need to know about cleaning your collections. Participants learn when to clean - and when not to clean. They also learn how to make those decisions. Topics range from basic housekeeping to specific techniques for specific objects. You will learn why cleaning is important and how to prevent damage when cleaning. We will look at specific techniques that minimize damage while getting the work done. And we will discuss when to call in a specialist, such as a conservator. Students will create a housekeeping manual for their institution.


MS 223: Care of Metals 

September 7 to October 2, 2015

Instructor: Diana Komejan


Outdoor sculpture, silver tea service, gold jewelry, axe head, wheel rim - metals are found in most museum collections and may be stored or displayed indoors or outdoors depending on the object. Learn how to identify different types of metal and their alloys. Gain an understanding of how and why metals deteriorate and methods for preventing deterioration from occurring or continuing. The pros and cons of different popular treatments will be covered along with recommendations for the least damaging approach to treatment. Care of Metals provides a simplified explanation of the chemistry and structure of metals, explaining the importance of the galvanic series and electrochemistry in care strategies. Starting with an overview of the history and function of metals and how they are made, the course will cover guidelines for handling, labeling, exhibiting and storing metals. An overview of treatments, including cleaning, used on metals and how appropriate they are for the long-term preservation of the metal object will help students make care decisions when consulting with conservators.


MS 227: Care of Paintings

September 7 to October 16, 2015

Instructor:  Victoria Montana Ryan

Caring for paintings requires some knowledge of the component structure of paintings and the reaction of those components to both natural and man-made environments. This course looks at the painting structure, the effects of damaging environments, and proposes simple steps for basic care. Topics include the structure of paintings, proper condition reporting with standard damage vocabulary, and basic care and handling including environments, storage, and transport. The course is intended to help those entrusted with the care of paintings in any environment.

Northern States Conservation Center (NSCC) provides training, collection care, preservation and conservation treatment services. NSCC offers online museum studies classes at www.museumclasses.org in Collections Management & Care, Museum Administration & Management, Exhibit Practices and Museum Facilities Management.


Helen Alten, Director

Peggy Schaller, Publications Manager